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Microcontroller Basic

In today's world of technology, we found Microcontrollers in almost every electronic device we uses. Almost all general purpose devices such as Digital Watches, Washing Machines, CD/DVD Players, Mobile Phones and Microwave Ovens works on the bases of Microcontroller.
Microcontroller is similar to a Personal Computer or a CPU but instead of interacting with human beings they interact with other machines. Basically, Microcontrollers were developed for making process automated. They are being used in Embedded Systems. Let Us have a look at What is Microcontroller and How it Works.

How Microcontroller Works?

What is  Microcontroller?

Although, there are many microcontrollers and even more programs available for microcontrollers, but most of them have most things in common. Thus if we able to learn any one of them then we can handle others also.
Microcontroller is very fast device (slower than computer) , so every instruction executed in Microcontroller at very fast speed. Its functioning is given below:
When the power supply is turned ON, the quartz oscillator being enabled by Control Logic Register. In the first few milliseconds, while the first preparations are in progress, the parasite capacitors are being charged.
When the Voltage level reaches its max value and frequency of quartz oscillator becomes stable, the process of writing bits on special function registers (SFRs) started. Everything occurs according to the clock of the oscillator and over all electronics starts working. All this takes very few nano seconds.
PC or Program counter is reset to zero address of the program memory. Then the address of the instructions sent to Instruction Decoder which decodes the instructions and thus executes them.
After execution of one instruction, the address of program counter is incremented by 1 and thus sending the address of next instruction to instruction decoder and executes the next instructions.
A Microcontroller is a IC chip that executes programs for controlling other devices or machines. It is a micro (small size as its a Integrated Circuit chip) device which is used for control of other devices and machines thats why it is called 'Microcontroller'. It is a Microprocessor having RAM,ROM and I/O ports.

Microcontroller in Daily Life

Microcontrollers are hidden inside a surprising number of products these days. If your microwave oven has an LED or LCD screen and a keypad, it contains a microcontroller. All modern automobiles contain at least one microcontroller, and can have as many as six or seven: The engine is controlled by a microcontroller, as are the anti-lock brakes, the cruise control and so on. Any device that has a remote control almost certainly contains a microcontroller:TVs, VCRs and high-end stereo systems all fall into this category. Nice SLR anddigital cameras, cell phones, camcorders, answering machines, laser printers,telephones (the ones with caller ID, 20-number memory, etc.), pagers, and feature-laden refrigerators, dishwashers, washers and dryers (the ones with displays and keypads)... You get the idea. Basically, any product or device that interacts with its user has a microcontroller buried inside.
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